Domain Driven Design (DDD)

An attempt to try understand what Domain Driven Design (DDD) is and how I can apply its practice and principles. Eric Evans defines a navigation map for DDD reference:

Eric Evans - DDD Navigation Map

General Terms

Term Description
Problem Domain The specific problem the software you’re working on is trying to solve.
Core Domain The key differentiator for the customer’s business – something they must do well and cannot outsource.
Ubiquitous Language Common language used by domain experts and developers.
Sub Domain Divide each problem of the application into a sub-domain, Examples: Sales, Accounting & Marketing are separate concerns. These are separate applications or features your software must support or interact with.
Bounded Context A description of a boundary (typically a subsystem, or the work of a particular team) within which a particular model is defined and applicable. Its ok for the same entity to have a different meaning per context in the same domain. Example: Customer - for a Sales Bounded Context this could be a Lead. For the Bookings Bounded Context this could be a Passenger.
Context Maps Used to visualize/demonstrate where the boundaries between contexts lie. This is the The process of identifying bounded contexts and their relationships to one another.
Shared Kernel Part of the model that is shared by two or more teams, who agree not to change it without collaboration

Code Classes, Models and Objects

Term Description
Anemic Domain Model Model with classes focused on state management, good for Create, read, update and delete (CRUD)
Rich Domain Model Model with logic focused on behavior, not just state, this is preferred for DDD.
Entity A mutable class (liable to change) with an identity that is not tied to its property values which is used for tracking and persistence.
Immutable Type whos state cannot be changed once the object is instantiated (think private setters that you can only access in the constructor)
Value Object An immutable class which identity is defined by the combination of its values.
Domain Services A place in the model to hold behavior that doesn’t belong elsewhere in the domain.
Side Effects State change of the application or interaction with infrastructure in the outside world.


Term Description
Aggregate A transactional graph of objects
Aggregate Root The entry point of an aggregate which ensures the integrity of the entire graph
Invariant A condition that should always be true for the system to be in a consistent state
Persistence Ignorant Classes Classes that have no knowledge about how they are persisted


A repository represents all objects of a certain type as a conceptual set…like a collection with more elaborate querying capability. —Eric Evans

Term Description
Repository A class that encapsulates the data persistence for an aggregate root
ACID Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, and Durable

Domain Events

Decoupling the Domain Model’s Communications.

Use a Domain Event to capture an occurrence of something that happened in the domain. —
Vaughn Vernon

Example events:

  • User Authenticated
  • Appointment Confirmed
  • Payment Received

Designing Domain Events:

  • Each event is its own class
  • Include when the event took place
  • Capture event-specific details
  • Event fields are initialized in constructor
  • No behavior or side effects

Anti-Corruption Layers

Translate between foreign systems’ models & our own using design patterns

  • Facade
  • Adapter
  • custom translation classes or services

The structure of an Anti-Corruption Layer:

Source: Evans, Domain-Driven Design, p. 367

Term Description
Domain Event A class that captures the occurrence of an event in a domain object
Hollywood Principle “Don’t call us, we’ll call you”
Inversion of Control (IOC) A pattern for loosely coupling a dependent object with an object it will need at runtime
Anti-Corruption Layer Functionality that insulates a bounded context and handles interaction with foreign systems or contexts


Advocates of the practice